In 1996 the New York Times reported on Dr. Michael Persinger a neuroscientist at Laurentian University in Ontario with relations to clandestine agencies and his experiments with solenoids and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. T.M.S. exploits the fact that neurons are comparable to electrical devices. When a nerve cell is activated, it triggers a flow of electrons and, when reaching the nerve end, the electrons induce the release of chemicals that pass to neighboring nerve cells. Thus stimulated, those cells continue the process throughout the brain.
T.M.S. allows the programming of patterns at which the fields will fluctuate. The impulses move through the temporal lobe and penetrate deep into the brain, where they interfere and interact with the complex electrical patterns of the subject's neural fields. The new sequences spread through the limbic system, producing sensations that range from subtle to profound and can produce rather bizarre experiences, such as thumb moving, while the subject's visual impression is that it remains still. The magnetic device can produce mood changes, sadness, happiness, sexual arousal, and the experience of sensing a negative presence or benevolent force. Focused on the hippocampus, the device produces ecstatic effects but "If you interfere with the opiate pattern, people get very irritated" Persinger says.
Even though the Milgram experiment on Obedience and Individual Responsibility showed that humans possess the capacity to relinquish their autonomy, people find it difficult to accept that individuals can be hypnotized to perform an act which is against their moral principles. U.S. Army experiments suggest that this popular perception is untrue. On the contrary they concluded that people could be induced to commit acts contrary to their morality if their reality was distorted by hypnotic state control. One of the experiments involved trying to manipulate a normal, stable army private to attack a superior officer, a cardinal sin in the military. While in deep trance he was told that the officer sitting across from him was an enemy soldier who was going to attempt to kill him. In the private's mind, it was a "kill or be killed" situation. The private immediately jumped up and grabbed the officer by the throat. The experiment was repeated several times. Department of Psychology chairman at Colgate University, Dr. Estabrooks, one of the most authoritative sources stirring up fear of mind-controlled sixth columnists in wartime USA stated, "I can hypnotize a man without his knowledge or consent into committing treason".
Escape is of particular importance as a tactic for individuals or small groups. To evade an attack instead of looking for confrontation gives small, flexible, and mobile units an advantage over large, hierarchical structures of dominance. Society's disapproval of a "flight from reality" quickly unveils itself as a propaganda lie targeted at the educated classes. Ultimately, it cannot be determined which reality is meant in this scenario ravaged by the misery of the normal and the terror of normality. Reality as a normative hallucination is the virtual prison system of a social organization. Individuals who flee from these representations and concepts of the world have more choices than those who cannot escape the straight-jackets of imposed reality. In a society where fear has advanced in boredom as a most effective method of counterrevolutionary control, houdinists and hedonic engineers explore escape routes from an anxiously bored society knowing that speed and deception secretly free from imposed values. The prerequisite for the successful escapist flight is to master the terrain. Navigation requires the manipulation of symbols in significant representations of spatial-topological structures. World maps, the tool of power politics and military intelligence, project proportional distortions of n-dimensional space onto the plane for propaganda purposes. Maps not only offer an abstract view of the world itself but also contain information about those who create them. This becomes particularly obvious with old maps. If we want to find out from which perspective the world is presented, we just have to look for the center of representation. The ways of life are flagged by representational systems, effective inducers with enforced non-representation of profits. In the center, seamless parquetry and non-local tiling of the imaginary space is a telematic menetekel for scotomic visualization. A trap is any of various devices by which one is caught or stopped unaware, confining or placing in a restricted position and preventing passage of something while allowing other matter to proceed. The escape artist is an expert on the topology of the knots and strings that bind him (De Vinculis in Genere) and a specialist when it comes to the warps and distortion of planes, lines and forms. As a technical version of Jacob's ladder, the functional principle of a controlled emergency escape is visualized in the international symbol of the fire escape emergency ladder. The opening becomes a carrier for a vision, the intermediate space turns into steps taken towards a way out. Not just up and down, left or right: ana or kata as proposed by the hyperspace pioneers. In hyper-contextuality the stand point changes into a line, opinion into a question of style as everything is connected in the hyperspace-design of the biomass. The children of the synvolution expand the personal resonance with non-finite resources, and transcode the synlogistic permaflux to escape from the vicious circle of coded projections and perceptions towards a nondeterministic hyperspace.
An expert system is an example of a Knowledge Based System. Knowledge Based Systems do not just store data, but also the rules that can be used to manipulate that data to answer questions about it. This knowledge consists not only of sets of rules about how to manipulate different kinds of data but uses methods for representing knowledge and enables acquisition and integration of new knowledge. Knowledge representation and processing information about the world is a major concern for developing expert systems. Pattern Recognition and the ability to learn are key characteristics of intelligent systems. An expert system provides expert advice (decisions, recommendations or solutions) replacing a real person. In an expert system, the program incorporates the knowledge of an expert in a particular field. These systems should capture and deliver knowledge that is not easily represented using traditional computing approaches.
Pattern Recognition plays an important role in expert systems and there is growing interaction between expert systems and pattern analysis. Core elements of Pattern Recognition, including "learning techniques" and "inference" play an important and central role in artificial intelligence; visual perception, scene analysis, and image understanding are essential to robotic vision. Methods such as knowledge representation, semantic networks, and heuristic searching algorithms can also be applied to improve the pattern representation and matching techniques for so-called "smart" Pattern Recognition. Problem solving expertise needs memory, knowledgebase schemas and representation. The transfer of decision making and problem solving to machines has a high economic potential and the necessity of finding models for problem solution has also initiated research in the question of how humans "do it". The goal of cognitive psychology is to understand the nature of human intelligence and how it works.
There is a strong need to understand what is going on in our world and the type of explanations endorsed will shape future behavior. Attribution Theory demonstrates how people create attitudes or beliefs or behaviors depending upon the explanations they make. Influencing how people understand and explain what is going on around them, controlling the attributions people make, maps out their future behavior. An external attribution assigns causality to an outside agent or force, internal attribution assigns causality to factors within the person. While attributions to external sources are less likely to change attitudes, through internal attribution it is highly probable that targets will come to view themselves differently. People making an internal attribution for their actions also tend to change their attitudes and beliefs about themselves, they turn into "that type" of person and the desired behavior follows consequently. Capture their minds and their hearts and souls will follow.
People need consistency in their lives and in explaining their world and Consistency Theory illustrates that there is also a tendency to expect consistency. Facing inconsistencies creates a state of dissonance and this experience of dissonance drives an urge to restore consistency. A way to get rid of this dissonance is to change the way one thinks. Reevaluation or denial are just two possibilities but both involve some mental work that changes the way of thinking about things. Avoidance of dissonance also explains opinion based on selective exposure where largely, information that might be contrary to existing views is not pursued. Dissonance is experienced as a result of subjective inconsistency while the reaction to a perceived external inconsistency or unfair restriction is referred to as reactance. Both reactance and dissonance are powerful motivating agents and cause highly agitated states and emotional stress.