Report: Slave and Expert Systems

  Related Search:

  Late 1960s - Early 1970s: Third Generation Computers

One of the most important advances in the development of computer hardware in the late 1960s and early 1970s was the invention of the integrated circuit, a solid-state device containing hundreds of transistors, diodes, and resistors on a tiny silicon chip. It made possible the production of large-scale computers (mainframes) of higher operating speeds, capacity, and reliability at significantly lower costs.

Another type of computer developed at the time was the minicomputer. It profited from the progresses in microelectronics and was considerably smaller than the standard mainframe, but, for instance, powerful enough to control the instruments of an entire scientific laboratory. Furthermore operating systems, that allowed machines to run many different programs at once with a central program that monitored and coordinated the computer's memory, attained widespread use.

browse Report:
Slave and Expert Systems
    Introduction: The Substitution of Human Faculties with Technology: Early Tools
-3   1950s: The Beginnings of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Research
-2   Late 1950s - Early 1960s: Second Generation Computers
-1   1961: Installation of the First Industrial Robot
0   Late 1960s - Early 1970s: Third Generation Computers
+1   1960s - 1970s: Increased Research in Artificial Intelligence (AI)
+2   1960s - 1970s: Expert Systems Gain Attendance
+3   1970s: Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM)
1980s: Artificial Intelligence (AI) - From Lab to Life
Operating system
An operating system is software that controls the many different operations of a computer and directs and coordinates its processing of programs. It is a remarkably complex set of instructions that schedules the series of jobs (user applications) to be performed by the computer and allocates them to the computer's various hardware systems, such as the central processing unit, main memory, and peripheral systems. The operating system directs the central processor in the loading, storage, and execution of programs and in such particular tasks as accessing files, operating software applications, controlling monitors and memory storage devices, and interpreting keyboard commands. When a computer is executing several jobs simultaneously, the operating system acts to allocate the computer's time and resources in the most efficient manner, prioritizing some jobs over others in a process called time-sharing. An operating system also governs a computer's interactions with other computers in a network.