Report: Slave and Expert Systems

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  1960s - 1970s: Increased Research in Artificial Intelligence (AI)

During the cold war the U.S. tried to ensure that it would stay ahead of the Soviet Union in technological advancements. Therefore in 1963 the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) granted the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) U.S.$ 2.2 million for research in machine-aided cognition (artificial intelligence). The major effect of the project was an increase in the pace of AI research and a continuation of funding.

In the 1960s and 1970s a multitude of AI programs were developed, most notably SHRDLU. Headed by Marvin Minsky the MIT's research team showed, that when confined to a small subject matter, computer programs could solve spatial and logic problems. Other progresses in the field of AI at the time were: the proposal of new theories about machine vision by David Marr, Marvin Minsky's frame theory, the PROLOGUE language (1972) and the development of expert systems.

browse Report:
Slave and Expert Systems
    Introduction: The Substitution of Human Faculties with Technology: Early Tools
-3   Late 1950s - Early 1960s: Second Generation Computers
-2   1961: Installation of the First Industrial Robot
-1   Late 1960s - Early 1970s: Third Generation Computers
0   1960s - 1970s: Increased Research in Artificial Intelligence (AI)
+1   1960s - 1970s: Expert Systems Gain Attendance
+2   1970s: Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM)
+3   Late 1970s - Present: Fourth Generation Computers
+4   1980s: Artificial Intelligence (AI) - From Lab to Life
Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA)
DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) is the independent research branch of the U.S. Department of Defense that, among its other accomplishments, funded a project that in time was to lead to the creation of the Internet. Originally called ARPA (the "D" was added to its name later), DARPA came into being in 1958 as a reaction to the success of Sputnik, Russia's first manned satellite. DARPA's explicit mission was (and still is) to think independently of the rest of the military and to respond quickly and innovatively to national defense challenges.

In the late 1960s, DARPA provided funds and oversight for a project aimed at interconnecting computers at four university research sites. By 1972, this initial network, now called the ARPAnet, had grown to 37 computers. ARPANet and the technologies that went into it, including the evolving Internet Protocol (IP) and the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), led to the Internet that we know today.