||ECHELON Corporations involved in Intelligence Business
The US intelligence community includes not only government agencies but many very influential private contractors.
"Orbit of Influence: Spy Finance and the Black Budget," written by Robert Dreyfuss in the March-April 1996 issue of The American Prospect provides an excellent introduction to this hitherto under-appreciated subject.
The following companies are said to be NSA and NRO contractors and main suppliers of the diverse technologies needed for a global surveillance system.
Core Business Areas: Aeronautical Systems, Space Systems, Systems Integration, Technology Services
Related Non-core Busineess Areas: Global Telecommunications, Commercial IT, Government Services
Sales: $26.2 billion
Sales by customer in '98: U.S. Department of Defense - 54%, Commercial/government/NASA/other - 23%, International - 23%
Employees:Nearly 160,000 employees in the United States, and over 5,500 employees working internationally
Operations:939 facilities in 457 cities and 45 states throughout the U.S.; Internationally, business locations in 56 nations and territories
Lockheed Martin Corporation
6801 Rockledge Drive
Bethesda, MD 20817
(It is said that Lockhead Martin receives ca. 3,5 billion $ from NRO budget and is well known as a powerful financier of congressional campaigns.)
TRW Inc. provides high-technology products and services to the automotive and space, defense & information systems markets. The financial results of the company's operations are reported in two core business segments: Automotive and Space, Defense & Information Systems.
Concerning Intelligence Systems TRW provides a broad range of intelligence collection processing,analysis and reporting systems to the United States government and allied nations. A prime supplier of critical systems and technology to the intelligence community, TRW has been a preferred supplier to this market for over 40 years. The company is applying its systems engineering skills to all phases of the intelligence business including a strong analysis and signal processing base, design, development, deployment and operations support of collection systems operations and full lifecycle support. TRW has a strong SIGINT base and significant IMINT and MASINT program skills as well.
TRW developed a constellation of satellites that provides near continuous tracking and communications service for up to 32 satellites simultaneously. Operating through a dedicated ground station, each Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) permits direct two-way communications between the shuttle or other user satellites and the ground. TRW provided seven TDRS satellites to NASA. The oldest, on orbit since 1983, is still functional; the total system operates at 99.97 percent reliability.
The Milstar communications network - a series of advanced satellites linked to group terminals - promises assured command and control to U.S. forces worldwide. TRW is providing the heart of the spaceborne segment: a low date rate payload offering secure, antijam, interoperable voice and data links; and the antenna and digital subsystem for the medium data rate payload, accommodating secure voice and data, imaging and targeting intelligence.
By combining forces with the information technology leader BDM, International, TRW has formed the new organization, TRW Systems & Information Technology Group. The Senior Executive and General Manager is Philip Odeen who has served as President, Chief Executive Officer, and a Director of BDM International, Inc. since May 1992. Mr. Odeen was with Coopers & Lybrand, an international auditing and consulting company, as Vice Chairman, Management Consulting Services from 1991 to 1992, and as Managing Partner from 1978 to 1991. Mr. Odeen has served in a number of government positions, including Director, Program Analysis, National Security Council, and Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense. He has also servered as the Chairman of the Defense Science Board's task force on privatization.
TRW developed and built RHYOLITE for NSA to eavesdrop electronically on foreign countries, especially the eastern Soviet Union, China and Soviet test ranges in the Pacific. Ist main target was TELINT (telemetry intelligence).But it also reached into the other countries' telecom systems. Each satellite carried antennas for sucking foreign microwave signals. (DB p184)
Rockwell is a world leader in electronic controls and communications. Rockwell has two primary businesses- Rockwell Automation and Avionics & Communications, which includes Rockwell Collins and Rockwell Electronic Commerce.
Annual Sales: $6.8 billion
World Headquarters: Milwaukee, WI
Employees: About 40,000
Rockwell Collins plays a major role in the manufacturing of satellite technologies.
Hughes Space and Communications Company (HSC) has built nearly 40 percent of the world's commercial communications satellites in operation today.
These spacecraft routinely relay digital communications, telephone calls, video conferences, television news reports, facsimiles, television programming, mobile communications, and direct-to-home entertainment--truly global communications.
Hughes Network Systems Inc. provides telecommunications equipment, satellite ground-based equipment and satellite communications services. With an
estimated worldwide market share in excess of 60 percent, Hughes Network Systems is the world's leading supplier of satellite-based private business
networks, and is a leader in wireless telephone networks and digital cellular mobile systems.
PanAmSat Corporation operates a global network of 19 state-of-the-art satellites that provide broadcast and telecommunications services to hundreds of customers worldwide. PanAmSat's fleet includes the premier cable and broadcast television satellites in the United States, Latin America, the Indian subcontinent and Asia-Pacific. The company offers satellite platforms for direct-to-home television services in Latin America, South Africa, India, Taiwan, and specialized programming in the United States as well as live transmission services for news, sports and special events coverage worldwide. PanAmSat also provides global satellite-based telecommunications services and Internet access and plans to launch seven additional satellite by late 2000.
Hughes Electronics is a global company with 15,000 employees worldwide. The 1998 revenues of Hughes communications and space operations were
$5.96 billion with earnings of $272 million.
The Boeing Company, after its merger in 1997 with McDonnell Douglas and acquisition in 1996 of the defense and space units of Rockwell International, became the largest aerospace company in the world. Its history mirrors the history of aviation. Boeing is the world's largest manufacturer of commercial jetliners and military aircraft, and the nation's largest NASA contractor. Company revenues for 1996 were $22.7 billion; for 1997 they were $45.8 billion, and for 1998 they reached $56.2 billion.
The company has an extensive global reach with customers in 145 countries, employees in more than 60 countries and operations in 27 states. Worldwide, Boeing and its subsidiaries employ more than 205,000 people -- with major operations in the Seattle-Puget Sound area of Washington state; Southern California; Wichita, Kan.; and St. Louis, Mo.
Boeing is organized into four major business segments: Commercial Airplanes, Space and Communications, Military Aircraft and Missiles, and Shared Services.
In the area of commercial space, Boeing teamed with Teledesic Corp. to create a satellite network that will serve as an "Internet-in-the-sky," by bringing affordable, fiber-quality access to the most remote reaches of the planet. Boeing revolutionized precision navigation by building the first 40 Global
Positioning System satellites and has a contract to build 33 next-generation Global Positioning Satellites. Boeing is teamed with partners from Russia, Ukraine and Norway on the Sea Launch joint venture which will launch satellites from a mobile platform in the Pacific Ocean. Boeing also makes the
Delta II and III expendable launch vehicles and is developing the Delta IV.
General Dynamics is a leader in supplying sophisticated defense systems to the United States and its allies, and in providing advanced business aircraft to corporate, government and individual owners. The company is headquartered in Falls Church, Virginia, and employs approximately 44,000 people in the United States, Canada, Mexico and the United Kingdom.
General Dynamics has four main business segments. Marine Systems designs and builds submarines, surface combatants, auxiliary ships and large commercial vessels. Combat Systems supplies land and amphibious combat machines and systems, including armored vehicles, power trains, turrets, munitions and gun systems. Information Systems and Technology produces signal and information processors and battlespace information management systems, while incorporating the use of commercial technologies for military applications. Aerospace designs manufactures and provides services for large cabin and ultra-long range business aircraft.
Unisys has more than 33,000 employees and applies information technology in 100 countries. Unisys products range from global information services including systems integration, outsourcing, "repeatable" application solutions, consulting, network integration, remote network management, and multivendor maintenance and support, coupled with enterprise-class servers and associated middleware, to software and storage.
Repeatable solutions are focused on key vertical markets including financial services, transportation, telecommunications, government, publishing and other commercial markets. Headquartered in Blue Bell, Pennsylvania, in the Greater Philadelphia area, Unisys had 1998 annual revenue of $7.2 billion.
Wang - Getronics
Wang merged with Getronics and is now one of the world's top five Information and Communications Technology companies business solutions. The Getronics family has branches in 44 countries, that also includes GetronicsWang (US) and GetronicsOlivetti (Italy and Japan).
PRC Inc., a subsidiary of Litton Industries, Inc., has more than 5,300
employees in 80 offices worldwide. Litton PRC is a provider of information technology and systems-based solutions for the public sector and an integrator in the design, development and management of standards-based open systems.
The company's core capabilities are in Functional and IT Outsourcing,
E-Business, and Critical Information and Infrastructure Protection. Litton PRC's services include Systems Integration, Software Engineering, Seat Management, Data Warehousing, BPR, Y2K, Systems Engineering, Data Center Design/Analysis, 911 Computer-Aided Dispatch, Complex Imaging and Records Management, C4ISR, Logistics, Infrastructure Planning, Range Operations, ITMRA/GPRA Planning, Health Informatics, and Enterprise Resource Planning. Markets include Criminal Justice, Weather, DoD, Aerospace, Intel, Healthcare, and Public Safety.
Honeywell employs over 57,500 people in 95 countries working in three businesses, all linked by common control technologies:
Home and Building Control: This business represents about 45 percent of Honeywell's total sales. "We are the worldwide leader in products and services that create comfortable, safe, efficient environments--in homes, office buildings, hospitals, schools, and anywhere else people live and work."
Industrial Control: Honeywell is the world's leading supplier of industrial control systems and components that improve productivity, optimize the use of raw materials, comply with environmental regulations, ensure plant safety, and enhance overall competitiveness. The Industrial Control business accounts for about 31 percent of the company's total sales.
Space and Aviation Control: Honeywell is the world's leading supplier of avionics systems for commercial, military and space markets. This business accounts for about 22 percent of total company sales. Honeywell technology has been on board every manned U.S. space flight since Mercury and is on nearly every commercial aircraft flying today.
Honeywell merged with AlliedSignal Inc. (http://www.alliedsignal.com), which is an advanced technology and manufacturing company serving customers worldwide with aerospace products and services, automotive products, chemicals, fibers, plastics and advanced materials. It is one of the 30 stocks that make up the Dow Jones Industrial Average and is also a component of the Standard & Poor's 500 Index. The company employs 70,400 people in some 40 countries.
With 1998 revenues of more than $25 billion, GTE is a leading telecommunications provider with one of the industry's broadest arrays of products and services. In the United States, GTE provides local service in 28 states and wireless service in 17 states, as well as nationwide long-distance, directory, and internetworking services ranging from dial-up Internet access for residential and small-business consumers to Web-based applications for Fortune 500 companies. Outside the United States, the company serves customers on five continents.
In 1982, GTE Mobilnet(R) was formed, and two acquisitions brought GTE Sprint Communications and GTE Spacenet to the fore. The year 1984 marked a year of firsts for GTE: the first GTE satellite launched; the first cellular mobile telephone service; and the first time GTE annual earnings exceeded $1 billion.
In 1994 GTE announces that it would combine its GTE Spacenet business with GTE Government Systems.
On October 5, 1999 MCI WorldCom and Sprint announced that the boards of directors of both companies have approved a definitive merger agreement.
MCI WorldCom's strategy is to capitalize on the industry's fastest growing segments: data/Internet, international and U.S. local phone services.
70,000 employees based in more than 65 countries serve the company's 22
million customers, specialized in "local-to-global-to-local" networks with facilities throughout North America, Latin America, Europe and the Asia-Pacific region. The company's long association with the Internet has enabled it to develop an Internet business with nearly $3 billion in annualized revenues; The company serves millions of U.S. business and residential customers over a 45,000-mile, all-fiber high capacity nationwide network, enough fiber to stretch from San Francisco to Washington, D.C. 16 times. UUNET supplements MCI WorldCom's Internet and technology operations.
MCI WorldCom provides fully integrated services over the first pan-European telecommunications network linking major commercial centers throughout the continent -- London, Paris, Frankfurt, Brussels, Amsterdam, Stockholm, Rotterdam and Düsseldorf -- through local city networks connected to its 2,000 (3,218 km) mile trans-continental long distance network.
MCI WorldCom says to triple the size of its all-fiber, high-capacity pan-European network to nearly 7,000 miles (11,263 km) by the end of 1999 through nationwide networks under development in Great Britain, France, Belgium and Germany. The company holds 50 percent ownership in two high capacity trans-Atlantic undersea cables enabling it to connect more than 35,000 buildings in the U.S. and 6,500 buildings in Europe.
Data General, with headquarters in Westborough, Massachusetts, is a supplier of servers, storage systems, and services for information systems users
worldwide. The company designs, manufactures, markets, and supports two major
families of open systems, AViiON® servers and CLARiiON® mass storage products,
which represent over 90 percent of current product revenues.
Data General focuses on providing high-end enterprise computing solutions for
businesses of all sizes, healthcare providers, government agencies, and companies in manufacturing, distribution, financial services, and telecommunications in more than 70 countries through a network of subsidiaries, distributors, and representatives. Since the founding in 1968, it has delivered more than 500,000 servers and storage systems worldwide.
Data General merged with EMC Corporation, which is, with 11,200 employees worldwide and over $3.9 billion in annual revenue in 1998, a leading supplier of intelligent enterprise storage and retrieval technology, designing systems for open system, mainframe, and midrange environments. EMC's Enterprise Storage products allow organizations to leverage their growing volumes of information into profitability and competitive advantage.
PSINet is another large provider of IP-based communications services for business. Their services include:
Corporate Internet access and private IP networks
Managed Internet security
Web and database hosting services
Electronic commerce solutions
Voice, fax, live audio-video, and other applications
PSINet delivers these services to small and medium-sized businesses as well as a quarter of the Fortune 500. The customers also include government agencies, educational institutions, and information services companies.
PSINet operates one of the industry's largest and most advance fast-packet Internet access networks. PSINet is the only independent facilities-based ISP in the world.
Headquartered in suburban Washington, D.C., with more than 600 points-of-presence and operations in United States, Canada, Europe, Latin America and Asia.
PSINet announced at the International Telecommunications Show TELECOM99 in Geneva that it will provide customers in Germany with wireless broadband microwave connections before the millenium. This carrier is more than 2000 times faster than ISDN and offers datarates around 155 Mbit. Radioconnections could be installed in 5 workdays. With this plan it seems that PSINet wants to bypass the monpoly of the still sate-owned telecom corporations in Europe. So the distance between the location of the customer and the next POP (Point of Presence)of PSINet is operated with frequencies in the microwave spectrum (28-38 GHz).
In partnership with government clients, MITRE is a not-for-profit corporation working in the public interest. It addresses issues of critical national importance, combining systems engineering and information technology.
MITRE's work is focused within three Federally Funded Research and Development Centers (FFRDCs). One FFRDC performs systems engineering and integration work for Department of Defense C3I. A second performs systems research and development work for the Federal Aviation Administration and other civil aviation authorities. The third FFRDC provides strategic, technical and program management advice to the Internal Revenue Service and the Treasury Department. Mitre Corp. operates sites in the US and Europe at important strategic locations related to the intelligence community.